UNO - rights
The widespread demand for various types of substances (hazardous materials) originates in industry and is reflected in transport. With the correct use of equipment for handling these types of goods, their transport becomes much easier and safer, enabling greater efficiency. Substances classified as hazardous materials are transported by means of tanks, the filling and emptying of which requires appropriate procedures and equipment. In order to carry out this activity, in addition to having the highest quality equipment, qualified people are needed who are familiar with the safety requirements (health and safety rules) and the procedures in force for each successive activity. Training of so-called fillers is provided by training centres that offer TDT courses.
The Transport Technical Supervision, created by the merger of the Railway Technical Supervision and the Maritime Technical Supervision in 2000, sets the regulations for transport matters, including transport equipment and safety rules. Furthermore, it indicates the form of maintenance - inspection intervals - for NO equipment of all kinds, also taking into account the correct technical condition of the equipment. Without the fulfilment of any of the requirements set by the TDT, no equipment should be in use, including equipment that has not carried out the relevant tests within the set time limit.
The category of hazardous material includes any good that poses a threat to the environment and human health. These include explosives, as well as inflammable, oxidising, radioactive, gases, corrosive or flammable substances. The physical state in which the substances in question are found does not alter the fact that they pose a risk to the environment and should be transported with appropriate safety precautions. The conditions for transport are strictly defined by the European ADR agreement, the provisions of which stipulate proper transport, and failure to comply with even one of the safety requirements set out by this agreement is illegal.
Transport of hazardous materials
First, the materials are classified and then, depending on the category obtained, undergo the appropriate procedures. This means that the goods are categorised according to the danger they present in their transport - in this case we are talking about '13 hazard categories'. The identification of the goods, i.e. the identification of the category and the naming of the goods according to ADR regulations, is the starting point for further operations. Transport takes different forms, depending on the physical state in which the material being transported is located. In the case of liquid substances, tanks - cisterns - are used. The goods being transported should be correctly labelled, as should the vehicle that is transporting them. For the marking of the vehicle, we also use number plates codifying information about the material transported. The entire procedure can be found in the ADR regulations.
TDT authorisation - ADR
The persons responsible for the transport of goods, i.e. the drivers, should have the relevant qualifications, which prove their skills and knowledge of the principles of safety, occupational health and safety, as well as the procedure in force. Certification of the above-mentioned knowledge is obtained by means of training courses culminating in an examination, the passing of which results in the granting of ADR authorisations.
Application of UNO
Dangerous goods are also transported by sea, and the installation of the materials transported is handled by specially constructed loading arms. They are used to fill tanks on ships with liquid as well as gaseous materials. They are often found in ports, where the entire substance handling process takes place. The arms use flexible reloading pipes, which are a widely used solution that is also reflected in land transport, where the construction and process of filling and emptying tanks takes place in specially designated areas. The hose designed to carry out the transhipment work is fitted with appropriate couplings and valves to ensure stable transfer of the substance to/from the tank.
What is the filler course like?
Before embarking on a course, every customer should familiarise themselves with the offerings of a particular training centre and compare them with the competition in order to get the best idea of the training market. The best centres are considered to be those that offer highly qualified staff with many years of professional experience, a professional training facility and fully operational training equipment. Also years of activity on the market and certificates, in this case from the TDT certifying that they meet all requirements is a priority.
All that is required of the course participant is to be at least eighteen years of age and to have at least an elementary school education, as well as a certificate from an occupational physician stating that there are no contraindications to entering the profession.
Those taking part in a course on the operation of equipment responsible for handling hazardous materials, commonly known as 'tank fillers', gain the necessary knowledge to practice as a filler, learning to comply with all the requirements of Technical Inspection. The courses are conducted by material class, i.e. each filler teaches how to properly fill and empty a tank containing a substance that falls under a particular category of hazardous materials, e.g. gases - class 2.
Each course contains information on both theory and practice - this translates into lectures providing theoretical knowledge and practical exercises where trainees learn how to perform their profession on a day-to-day basis. This also applies to knowledge of health and safety rules and fire safety regulations, knowledge of which is crucial once training is completed.
Following the course, filler candidates must face an examination, the passing of which will result in the necessary certification. The examination is conducted by the Transport Technical Supervision.