Soldering - what is it, characteristics, types and how to learn to solder?
Soldering is a quick way of joining two things together, but it requires precision and skill.
What is soldering?
Brazing is a method of joining various components in which a space is filled between the closely fitting surfaces of the parts to be joined by capillary forces through a heated, molten adhesive. This method is mainly used to join metals together, but there is no obstacle to its use with non-metallic materials as well.
Brazing is one of three methods of permanently joining materials. We can also distinguish between welding and welding. The most characteristic feature of soldering is the joining of materials in a solid state - this is what distinguishes soldering from welding and welding. The joining of materials at low temperatures has allowed a significant development in industrial work and beyond.
What makes soldering so popular?
- Bypassing the complex and difficult metallurgical and technological considerations of joining metals and their alloys by other bonding methods;
- A very wide temperature range for the soldering process. Temperatures can range from 100 to as much as 1,400 degrees Celsius, depending on requirements;
- A wide variety of solutions in terms of solder joint design;
- It is possible to join together almost all metals and metal alloys, and even materials with very different physical and chemical properties;
- Combining metals with non-metals;
- Combining elements of different shapes and sizes;
- Ease of mechanisation and automation of soldering processes.
Methods of soldering - soft vs. hard
Soldering can be divided into two ways, depending on the melting temperature of the binders:
- Soft soldering - must take place at a temperature not exceeding 450 degrees Celsius, the most common being around 320 degrees. This method is most often used to weld parts with low joint stresses and low operating temperatures, these can be electronic circuits, electrical cables, sheet metal. The metals that are joined using soft loosening are steel, copper, zinc, brass and their alloys.
- Brazing - Similarly, brazing must involve brazing adhesives with a melting point above 450 degrees Celsius - usually up to 2000 degrees. It is used to join steels of various types as well as gold, silver, copper, brass and bronze.
We can divide hard solders into 8 types, which differ due to their basic ingredient, which has quite an impact on the properties of the binder:
- Aluminium solders (Class AL) - the melting point is in the region of 575-630 degrees Celsius.
- Silver (AG grade) - the most versatile binders, can be used for soldering most metals, with a melting point of approx. 420-1020 degrees Celsius.
- Copper-phosphorus solders (CP grade) - copper solders with added phosphorus, used for soldering copper, brass and bronze. They conduct electricity well and are extremely strong. The melting point is 645-890 degrees Celsius.
- Copper solders (CU grade) - pure copper used for soldering all steels and nickel. The melting point is approximately 1070-1085 degrees Celsius.
- Nickel alloys (NI grade) - used for stainless steel and alloys with cobalt, tungsten or molybdenum. The melting point is between 880 and 1070 degrees Celsius.
- Cobalt lutes (CO class) - used exclusively for brazing cobalt hard alloys.
- February gold (AU class) - have good soldering properties and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures.
- February with palladium (PD grade) - have between 40 and 60% of palladium, but their primary component is either silver or copper.
Soldering courses and training
The ability to solder is very useful in the labour market. Employers look favourably on those who possess it. It is not easy, but it is worth taking the time to enrich yourself with a new competence.
Courses and training in this area are run by the most competent people on the market. They are themselves specialists in their profession and impart knowledge in a skilful and enjoyable manner, making it even easier to absorb. Attending such a course can result in finding a job more quickly and, in addition, can become helpful at home.
As soldering is one of the most common methods of joining metals, it will be very useful for beginner electronics engineers. The course can illuminate a little and deepen the knowledge of what metals and electronic components can be joined together.
The course in this subject covers brazing and soft soldering of copper or aluminium materials used in central heating, refrigeration and air conditioning installations. The training consists of a theoretical and a practical part.
According to a regulation of the Minister of Economy from 2000, any person who wants to work with soldering must have a certificate of completion of such a training course. An exam is not needed to complete the whole thing and to be able to do soldering work, a certificate of completion of the course is completely sufficient. Training courses are paid for and the price depends on the location and length of the course.
If you are interested in this topic, don't wait and sign up for our soldering training. This will enhance your competence in the eyes of your employer, but will also bring a lot of benefits outside of work.